 The most popular clustering algorithm.
 Scales well with many samples.
 The algorithm initially defines \(k\) points as cluster centroids. \(k\) is defined by the user.
 It goes through every sample and assigns each sample to the closest cluster centroid.
 Then, it calculates the mean of each cluster and moves the centroid to the mean of each cluster. The mean of a multidimensional data is the mean of each column. So the mean has the same dimensions.
 At this point, it assigns samples to each centroid again based on the distance between the samples and centroids.
 Upon repeating the above steps, the algorithm converges to the point where the centroids stop moving.
 If one of the centroids does get any samples assigned to it, you can remove it, in which case you will have \(k1\) clusters. Another, less common, solution is to reinitialize the centroids.
The optimization function
 The optimization function of the kmeans algorithm is minimizing the average distance between the sample locations and the cluster centroid to which they are assigned.
 Formally, the optimization function which we want to minimize is \(C = \frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=1}^{n}( x_i  \mu_{c_i} )^2\), where \(x_i\) is the location of sample \(i\), and \(\mu_{c_i}\) is the location of cluster centroid to which sample \(i\) is assigned.
 The cluster assignment step in the kmeans algorithm minimizes the cost function with respect to assigned clusters to samples.
 The centroid movement step minimizes the cost function with respect to the location of the centroids.
How to randomly initialize the cluster centroids
 There are different ways you can do this, but there is an optimal method that helps avoiding being trapped in local minima.
 Choose \(k < n\).
 Randomly pick \(k\) sample as the cluster centroids.
 kmeans can anyway get stuck in local optima.
 A way to make sure that the solution is the best, we can try to run the algorithm many times (e.g. 50 to 1000) with different initial values, and then choose the solution with the lowest cost.
 Random initialization is important when you have a few number of clusters. The more clusters you have, the less likely it is to get stuck in local optima.
How the choose \(k\)
 The most common way is to choose \(k\) manually by looking at visualization.
 Another method to do it the the “elbow method”.
 The “elbow method” involves plotting the minimized cost of the algorithm with a range of \(k\). The cost should decrease as we increase \(k\). Initially, the cost decreases fast, and then at a specific \(k\) it starts to decreases slower. That specific \(k\) can be a good candidate for the number of clusters.
 The elbow method is not used commonly because many times you do not get and “elbow” in your costs curve.
Exercise

Cluster the following fabricated data using the kmeans algorithm. The data are in
feature
variable. Note that here we already have the labels in thelabels
variable, but we will not use them. (2 points)using PyPlot using ScikitLearn @sk_import datasets: make_blobs features, labels = make_blobs(n_samples=500, centers=3, cluster_std=0.55, random_state=0) scatter(features[:, 1], features[:, 2], color="black")

Use the Kmeans algorithm to categorize human faces in this dataset. This kind of learning can be used later when we encounter a new face, we would be able to determine which group it belongs to. It may be a good idea to reduce the dimensions of the data and scale features to the same ranges. Exclude people who have less than 20 pictures, otherwise the predictions would be too random. Reserve a fraction of the images for testing. (Optional. 3 points)
You can read in the images with the
Images.jl
library:# Install required packages ]add Images ]add ImageMagick ]add FileIO using FileIO img = load("your image file")
The images are in color, but it is easier to work with grayscale. You can either manually change the images to grayscale, or do it with the
Gray
function from theColorTypes
package (Gray.(img)
).To manually convert a color image to a grayscale, you can use one of the following approaches. a) take the mean of the R, G, and B values. b) find the difference between the highest value and the lowest value among R, G, and B, and divide it by 2. c) Use luminosity method, which is a weighted average of the R, G and B values: 0.21 R + 0.72 G + 0.07 B.